Frequently Asked Questions
Q: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESPIRATORS?
A: Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR), which are sometimes called disposable respirators, are subject to various regulatory standards around the world. These standards specify certain required physical properties and performance characteristics in order for respirators to claim compliance with the particular standard. Based on the comparison below, it is reasonable to consider China KN95, AS/NZ P2, Korea 1st Class, and Japan DS FFRs as “equivalent” to US NIOSH N95 and European FFP2 respirators, for filtering non-oil-based particles such as those resulting from wildfires, PM 2.5 air pollution, volcanic eruptions, or bioaerosols (e.g. viruses).
|Certification/ Class (Standard)||N95 (NIOSH-42C FR84)||FFP2 (EN 149-2001)||KN95 (GB2626-20 06)||P2 (AS/NZ 1716:2012)||Korea 1st Class (KMOEL - 2017-64)||DS (Japan JMHLW- Notification 214, 2018)|
|Filter performance – (must be ≥ X% efficient)||≥ 95%||≥ 94%||≥ 95%||≥ 94%||≥ 94%||≥ 95%|
|Test agent||NaCl||NaCl and paraffin oil||NaCl||NaCl||NaCl and paraffin oil||NaCl|
|Flow rate||85 L/min||95 L/min||95 L/min||95 L/min||95 L/min||95 L/min|
|Total inward leakage (TIL)* – tested on human subjects each performing exercises||N/A||≤ 8% leakage (arithmetic mean)||≤ 8% leakage (arithmetic mean)||≤ 8% leakage (arithmetic mean)||≤ 8% leakage (arithmetic mean)||≤ 8% leakage (arithmetic mean)|
|Inhalation resistance – max pressure drop||≤ 343 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (at 30 L/min) ≤ 240 Pa (at 95 L/min) ≤ 500 Pa (clogging)||≤ 350 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (at 30 L/min) ≤ 240 Pa (at 95 L/min)||≤ 70 Pa (at 30 L/min) ≤ 240 Pa (at 95 L/min)||≤ 70 Pa (w/valve) ≤ 50 Pa (no valve)|
|Flow rate||85 L/min||Varied – see above||85 L/min||Varied – see above||Varied – see above||40 L/min|
|Exhalation resistance - max pressure drop||≤ 245 Pa||≤ 300 Pa||≤ 250 Pa||≤ 120 Pa||≤ 300 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (w/valve) ≤ 50 Pa (no valve)|
|Flow rate||85 L/min||160 L/min||85 L/min||85 L/min||160 L/min||40 L/min|
|Exhalation valve leakage requirement||Leak rate ≤ 30 mL/min||N/A||Depressurization to 0 Pa ≥ 20 sec||Leak rate ≤ 30 mL/min||visual inspection after 300 L /min for 30 sec||Depressurization to 0 Pa ≥ 15 sec|
|Force applied||-245 Pa||N/A||-1180 Pa||-250 Pa||N/A||-1,470 Pa|
|CO2 clearance requirement||N/A||≤1%||≤ 1%||≤1%||≤ 1%||≤ 1%|
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Q: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEDICAL GOWNS?
A: Many terms that have been used to refer to gowns intended for use in health care settings, include surgical gowns, isolation gowns, surgical isolation gowns, nonsurgical gowns, procedural gowns, and operating room gowns. Regardless of how the product is named, when choosing a gown, look for product labeling that describes an intended use with the desired level of protection based on the following risk levels.
- Level 1: Minimal risk to be used, for example, during basic care, standard isolation, cover gown for visitors, or in a standard medical unit
- Level 2: Moderate risk, to be used, for example, during blood draw, suturing, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or a pathology lab
- Level 3: Moderate risk, to be used, for example, during arterial blood draw, inserting an Intravenous (IV) line, in the Emergency Room, or for trauma cases